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LNG蓄能装置及冷能利用技术的研究

作者:润色论文网  来源:www.runselw.com  发布时间:2019/10/31 9:48:20  

摘要:伴随着经济的高速发展,环境污染的问题日趋严重。环保问题对能源的利用技术提出了更高的要求,发现并利用洁净的新型能源迫在眉睫,LNG的冷能利用技术应运而生。液化天然气只有经过汽化器的气化后才能被有效利用,在此过程中其蕴含的冷能通过与空气和水的接触换热排出,造成了很大的能源浪费。对于燃气船舶而言,这部分冷能会直接排放至海洋或湖泊中,这对于海洋生态环境和湖泊生态环境都会产生不利的影响。因此,无论是从能源利用角度还是生态环境保护角度考虑,回收并利用蕴含在液化天然气中的冷能都十分必要,在产生社会价值的同时还可以产生巨大的经济价值。本文即从能源利用方向入手,研究LNG冷能利用方法及蓄冷装置,并应用于空调和冷库的制冷系统中。本文结合热设计基本理论和热仿真软件ICPAK,设计出一套天然气蓄能换热装置,并从高效性、经济性、可靠性等几个方面加以优化,最后通过实验的方法进行验证。主要研究内容及结论如下:

(1)理论计算:假设LNG的质量流量为30 kg/h,通过对热(冷)负荷的计算确定出LNG产生的冷量,通过查阅相关资料进一步确定冷能转化效率。通过换热的相关计算,确定蓄冷装置的换热面积及换热系数等相关工艺参数,并分析各参数对换热的影响;

(2)结构设计:以CNC机加工技术为基础,结合板式换热器的结构特点设计出一种具有蓄冷腔的换热器结构,该结构有三种流程,分别是LNG,蓄冷剂,取冷剂,该蓄能换热器能够满足一台1 kw的用冷设备连续工作4小时;

(3)流程设计:利用流体仿真技术模拟各种流体间的换热和传热效果,通过计算结果得出最佳的冷能利用方法并设计工艺流程,并对系统中的各个部件选型;

(4)模拟仿真:利用有限元分析技术结合仿真软件ICPAK对蓄能进行仿真,模拟装置实际运行状态下的工作状况,根据不同的参数分析装置的热性能和其他性能是否满足技术要求;

(5)实验:确定了结构和工艺流程后进行实验验证,实验的目的主要有两种,其一是检验装置的各项性能是否满足技术要求;其二是检验模拟仿真的计算结果是否正确。

With the rapid development of economy, theproblem of environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious. At thesame time, higher requirements for the technology of energy utilization are putforward. It is also urgent to discover and utilize clean new energy. The coldenergy utilization technology of LNG came into being. Liquefied natural gas canbe effectively utilized only after vaporization. During this process, the coldenergy contained in LNG can be discharged through contact with air and water,which causes great energy waste. For gas ships, this part of cold energy willbe directly discharged into the oceans or lakes, which will have an adverse impacton the marine ecological environment and the lake ecological environment.Therefore, it is necessary to recycle and utilize the cold energy contained inliquefied natural gas, whether from the perspective of energy use or ecologicalenvironment protection. At the same time, the social value can also producegreat economic value. This paper studies the LNG cold energy utilization methodand the cold storage device, which will be applied to the the refrigerationsystem of air conditioning and cold storage. This paper designs a coolingdevice for liquid cooling plate, and optimizes it from the aspects ofefficiency, economy and reliability based on the basic theory of thermal designand simulation software ICPAK. Finally, it is verified by experimental method.

The main contents and conclusions are asfollows:

(1)Theoretical calculation: Assuming thatthe mass flow rate of LNG is 30kg/h, the cooling capacity of LNG is determinedthrough the calculation of thermal (cold) load, and then the cold energy conversionefficiency is further determined by referring to relevant data. The relatedparameters of heat exchange area and heat transfer coefficient of the coldstorage device are determined by the correlation calculation of heat transfer,and the influence of the parameters on the heat exchange is analyzed.

(2)Structural design: It is based on CNCmachining technology, combined with the structure of the heat exchanger, designa heat exchange structure of cold storage chamber, which has three processes,namely LNG, coolant, and refrigerant, which can meet the cooling equipment of a1 kw 4 hours of continuous work.

(3)Process design: It uses fluid simulationtechnology to simulate the heat transfer and heat transfer effects of variousfluids, and obtains the best cold energy utilization method and design processflow through calculation results. At the same time, the selection of thecomponents of the system is also required.

(4)Simulation: It uses element analysistechnology and simulation software ICPAK to simulate energy storage, simulatethe actual working state of the device, and analyze whether the thermalperformance and other performance of the device meet the technical requirementsaccording to different parameters.

(5)Experiment: The experimentalverification was carried out after the structure and process flow weredetermined. There are two main purposes of the experiment. One of them is totest whether the performance of the device meets the technical requirements,and the second is to verify the correctness of the simulation results.

关键词:液化天然气;能源利用;蓄冷装置;热仿真

liquefied natural gas; energy utilization;cold accumulator; thermal simulation

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