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电梯平衡链测长设备控制系统的设计与研究

作者:润色论文网  来源:www.runselw.com  发布时间:2019/9/24 9:50:59  

摘要:电梯平衡链是用来维持电梯平稳运行的,是电梯组成的重要部件。不同高度楼层的电梯需要的平衡链长度不同,需要进行长度测量后再安装。现有的测长设备为类似于线缆计米器的装置,不能精确地测量平衡链这种表面凹凸不平物件。因此在计米器的基础上设计出了新的测长设备,而控制系统是影响自动测量精确度的重要因素,本文设计出了基于STM32的模糊PID控制系统,最终实现了速度和精确度的进一步提高。

本控制系统以STM32F103为主控制器,威纶通MT6103iQ为人机界面。通过直线位移传感器的电压信号大小来判断滑块移动的距离,设计模糊PID控制算法实现对伺服电机速度的在线调节,补偿测量误差。通过计算编码器发出脉冲信号的个数来进行长度的测量,并且将测量值在触摸屏上实时显示。

本文主要做了下面几个方面的工作。

(1)进行了测长方案的总体设计,对机械结构及其测量原理进行了简单说明,并设计出了整体控制方案。

(2)进行了控制系统的硬件设计,主要包括主电气电路的设计,电气设备的选型以及开发板的设计。

(3)通过MATALB软件设计出了模糊PID控制器,对其不断测试和仿真,最后制定出正确的控制策略,制定出模糊控制查询表用于伺服参数的调节。

(4)用KEIL和EasyBuilder软件分别编写单片机和触摸屏程序,确保实验进程按照设计的方案运行,自动补偿测量误差。   

最后进行不断调试,实验,记录数据做成表格进行对比,证明控制系统设计的合理性。实验证明,本控制系统在提高测量速度的同时可以很好地补偿因摩擦力不稳定而造成的误差,测量误差被控制在0.1%之内,符合预期目标。

Elevator balance chain is used to maintainthe smooth running of the elevator, which is an important part of the tractionelevator. The required balance chain length for elevators at distrinct heightfloors is different ,it needs to be measured beforebeing fixed.The existing length measuring equipment is similar to the cablemeter, which cannot be used to accurately measure the uneven surface devicelike balance chain. Therefore, a new length measuring device was designed onthe basis of metering device, and the control system is an important factorwhich affects the accuracy of automatic measurement. A fuzzy PID control systembased on STM32 was designed in this paper. Finally, the speed and precisionwere further improved.     

A complete control system for the elevatorbalancing chain length measuring equipment was designed with STM32F103 as themain controller and Wirunton MT6103iq as the man-machine interface. The voltagesignal of the linear displacement sensor was detected to judge the distancethat the slider moves, and the speed of servo motor can be adjusted in realtime with fuzzy control algorithm, then the measurement error can becompensated. T he length was measured by calculating the number of pulsesignals emitted by the encoder, and the measured values were displayed on thetouch screen in real time.

The dissertation mainly contains followingseveral works:

(1) The overall design of the lengthmeasuring equipment was carried out, the mechanical structure and its measuringprinciple were simply explained, and the overall control scheme was designed.

(2) The hardware design of the controlsystem was carried out, including the design of the main electrical controlcircuit, the selection of the electrical equipment and the design of thePrinted circuit board.

(3) A fuzzy PID controller was designed byMATALB software. The fuzzy PID controller was tested and simulatedcontinuously. Finally, the correct control strategy ,andthe correct fuzzy control query table was worked out to adjust servo parameters。 

(4) The programs of single chipmicrocomputer and touch screen were designed by software KEIL and EasyBuilder,to ensure that the experiment process would run with the designed scheme andautomatically compensate the measurement error.

At last, debug and test the systemcontinuously, and make the recorded data into tables for comparison to provethe design of the control system was reasonable .Experimental results show thatthe control system can improve the measuring speed and compensate the errorcaused by the instability of friction force at the same time, and themeasurement error was controlled within 0.1%, which is in line with theexpected goal.

关键词:平衡链;测长设备;控制系统;模糊PID控制;测量误差

balance chain; length measuring equipment ;control system ; fuzzy PID control ; measuring error

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